Dr. Cai  Song

Dr. Cai Song

Professor
Dalhousie University, Canada


Highest Degree
Ph.D. in Psychoneuroimmunology from The National University of Ireland, Ireland

Share this Profile

Area of Interest:

Biomedical Sciences
100%
Psychoneuroimmunology
62%
Neurotrophic System
90%
Inflammation
75%
Neuroinflammatory Mechanism
55%

Education

2006

Ph.D.

The National University of Ireland, Ireland

Psychoneuroimmunology

Selected Publications

  1. Luchtman, D.W., Q. Meng, X. Wang, D. Shao and C. Song, 2013. ω-3 fatty acid eicospaentaenoic acid attenuates MPP+ induced neurodegeneration in fully differentiated human SH-SY5Y and primary mesencephalic cells. J. Neurochem., 124: 855-868.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  2. Luchtman, D. and C. Song, 2013. Cognitive enhancement by omega-3 fatty acids from child-hood to old age: Findings from animal and clinical studies. Neuropharmacology, 64: 550-565.
    PubMed  |  

  3. Maes, M., C. Song and R. Yirmiya, 2012. Targeting IL-1in depression. Expert Opin. Ther. Targets, 16: 1097-1112.
    PubMed  |  

  4. Ji, C., C. Song, H.A. Aisa, N. Yang and Y.Y. Liu et al., 2012. Gossypium herbaceam L. extracts ameliorate disequilibrium of IL-1RA/IL-1β ratio to attenuate inflammatory process induced by Amyloid β in rats. Curr. Alzheimer Res., 9: 953-961.
    Direct Link  |  

  5. Tang, Q., X. Ma, C. Mo, I.W. Wilson and C. Song et al., 2011. An efficient approach to enriching Siraitia grosvenorii triterpene biosynthestic genes by RNA-seq and DGE ananlysis. BMC Genomics, 12: 343-356.

  6. Song, C., 2011. Omega-3 Fatty acides on depression, anxiety and sickness behavior in animal models. Clin. Psychopharmacol. Neurosci., 9: S46-S47.

  7. Song, C. and H. Wang, 2011. Cytokines mediated inflammation and decreased neurogenesis in animal models of depression. Prog. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiat., 35: 760-768.
    PubMed  |  

  8. Luchtman, D.W., Q. Meng and C. Song, 2011. Ethyl-eicosapentaenoate (E-EPA) attenuates motor impairments and inflammation in the MPTP-probenecid mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Behav. Brain Res., 226: 386-396.
    CrossRef  |  

  9. Ji, C., C. Song and P. Zuo, 2011. The mechanism of memory impairment induced by Aβ chronic administration involves imbalance between cytokines and neurotrophins in the rat hippocampus. Curr. Alzheimer Res., 8: 410-420.
    Direct Link  |  

  10. Zhang, X.Y., M.H. Xiu, C. Song, D.C. Chen and G.Y. Wu et al., 2010. Increased serum S100B in never-medicated and medicated schizophrenic patients. J. Psychiatr. Res., 44: 1236-1240.
    CrossRef  |  

  11. Wang, D.X., J. Yang, Z.X. Gu, C.Y. Song and W.Y. Liu et al., 2010. Arginine vasopressin induces rat caudate nucleus releasing acetylcholine to participate in pain modulation. Peptides, 31: 701-705.
    CrossRef  |  

  12. Taepavarapruk, P. and C. Song, 2010. Reductions of acetylcholine release and nerve growth factor expression are correlated with memory impairment induced by interleukin-1β administrations: Effects of omega-3 fatty acid EPA treatment. J. Neurochem., 112: 1054-1064.
    CrossRef  |  

  13. Song, C., 2010. The Role of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Pathology and Treatment of Depression. In: Depression: From Psychopathology to Pharmacotherapy. Mod Trends Pharmacopsychiatry, Cryan, J.F. and B.E. Leonard (Eds.). Vol. 27. Karger, Basel, pp: 72-88.

  14. Meng, Q., D.W. Luchtman, B. El-Bahh, J.A. Zidichouski, J. Yang and C. Song, 2010. Ethyl-eicosapentaenoate modulates changes in neurochemistry and brain lipids induced by parkinsonian neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium in mouse brain slices. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 649: 127-134.
    CrossRef  |  

  15. Luchtman, D.W. and C. Song, 2010. Why SH-SY5Y cells should be differentiated. Neurotoxiology, 31: 164-165.
    CrossRef  |  

  16. Yang, J., H.F. Yuan, W.Y. Liu, X.X. Zhang and J.P. Feng et al., 2009. Norepinephrine regulates arginine vasopressin secretion in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus relating with pain modulation. Neuropeptides, 43: 259-265.
    CrossRef  |  

  17. Yang, J., H. Yuan, W. Liu, C. Song and H. Xu et al., 2009. Arginine vasopressin in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is transferred to the nucleus raphe magnus to participate in pain modulation. Peptides, 30: 1679-1682.
    CrossRef  |  

  18. Song, C., X.Y. Zhang and M. Manku, 2009. Increased phospholipase A2 activity and inflammatory response but decreased nerve growth factor expression in the olfactory bulbectomized rat model of depression: effects of chronic ethyl-eicosapentaenoate treatment. J. Neurosci., 29: 14-22.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  19. Song, C., U. Halbreich, C. Han, B.E. Leonard and H.C. Luo, 2009. Imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and between Th1 and Th2 cytokines in depressed patients: The effect of electroacupuncture or fluoxetine treatment. Pharmacopsychiatry, 42: 182-188.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  20. Song, C., 2009. The interaction between inflammation and neurotrophic system: A new hypothesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurol. Psychiat. Brain Res., 1: 59-60.

  21. Shu, S.Y., C. Song, Y. Wu, Z. Guo, S. Liu, L. Mo and X. Bao, 2009. Learning and memory deficits caused by a lesion in the medial area of the left putamen in the human brain. CNS Spectrums, 14: 473-476.
    Direct Link  |  

  22. Qiu, H.T., H.Q. Meng, C. Song, M.H. Xiu and D.C. Chen et al., 2009. Association between monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A gene variants and schizophrenia in a Chinese population. Brain Res., 1287: 67-73.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  23. Luchtman, D.W., D. Shao and C. Song, 2009. Behavior, neurotransmitters and inflammation in three regimens of the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Physiol. Behav., 98: 130-138.
    CrossRef  |  

  24. Zhang, X.Y., L.Y. Cao, C. Song, G.Y. Wu and C. Chen et al., 2008. Lower serum cytokine levels in smokers than nonsmokers with chronic schizophrenia on long-term treatment with antipsychotics. Psychopharmacology, 201: 383-389.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  25. Song, C., P. Taepavarapruk and Y. Zhang, 2008. Acute and chronic IL-1β administrations differentially modulate learning and memory, acetylcholine efflux and neurotrophin expressions in the hippocampus: Possible mechanisms involved in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. Brain Beh. Immun., 22: 41-42.

  26. Song, C., M.S. Manku and D.F. Horrobin, 2008. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate interleukin-1β-induced changes in behavior, monoaminergic neurotransmitters, and brain inflammation in rats. J. Nutrition., 138: 954-963.
    Direct Link  |  

  27. Kou, W., D. Luchtman and C. Song, 2008. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increases cell viability and expression of neurotrophin receptors in retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Eur. J. Nutrition., 47: 104-113.
    CrossRef  |  

  28. Song, C., X.W. Li, Z.J. Kang and Y. Kadotomi, 2007. ω-3 fatty acid ethyl-eicosapentaenoate attenuates IL-1β-induced changes in dopamine and metabolites in the shell of the nucleus accumbens: Involved with PLA2 activity and corticosterone secretion. Neuropsychophamacology, 32: 736-744.
    Direct Link  |  

  29. Song, C., B.E. Leonard and D.F. Horrobin, 2007. Dietary ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid but not soybean oil reverses central interleukin-1-induced changes in behavior, corticosterone and immune response in rats. Stress, 7: 43-54.
    Direct Link  |  

  30. Song, C. and S. Zhao, 2007. Omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a new drug in treatment psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases: A review of clinical trials. Exp. Opin. Inv. Drug, 16: 1627-1638.
    PubMed  |  

  31. Song, C. and B.E. Leonard, 2006. Effects of acute and sub-chronic administration of Interleukin-1 β on the behaviour, immune and neurotransmitter function in the rat. Pharmacopsychiatry, 39: 88-99.

  32. Lai, A., R.D. Swayze, A. El-Husseini and C. Song, 2006. Interleukin-1 β modulates AMPA receptor expression and phosphorylation in hippocampal neurons. J. Neuroimmunol., 175: 97-106.
    CrossRef  |  

  33. Song, C. and B.E. Leonard, 2005. The olfactory bulbectomized rats: As a model of depression. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 29: 627-647.
    PubMed  |  

  34. Song, C., A.G. Phillips, B.E. Leonard and D.F. Horrobin, 2004. ω-3 fatty acid and RU 486 reverse IL-1-induced memory impairment in rats: A glucocorticoid involved mechanism. Mol. Psychiatry, 9: 630-638.

  35. Song, C. ans D.F. Horrobin, 2004. ω-3 fatty acid ethyl-eicosapentaenoate but not soybean oil, attenuates memory impairment induced by central IL-1β administration. J. Lipid Res., 45: 1112-1121.
    Direct Link  |  

  36. Murck, H., C. Song, D.F. Horrobin and M. Uhr, 2004. Ethyl-EPA and dexamethasone-resistance in therapy-refractory depression. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol., 7: 341-349.

  37. Lam, R.W., C. Song and L.N. Yatham, 2004. Does neuroimmune dysfunction mediate seasonal mood changes in winter depression? Med. Hypotheses, 63: 567-573.
    PubMed  |  

  38. Song, C., X.W. Li, B.E. Leonard and D.F. Horrobin, 2003. Effects of dietary n-3 or n-6 fatty acids on interleukin-1β-induced anxiety, stress, and inflammatory responses in rats. J. Lipid Res., 44: 1984-1991.
    Direct Link  |  

  39. Song, C., A.G. Phillips and B.E. Leonard, 2003. Interleukin-1β enhances conditioned fear memory but impairs spatial learning in rats: Possible involvement of glucocorticoids and monoamine function in the amygdala and hippocampus. Eur. J. Neurosci., 18: 1739-1743.

  40. Barr, A.M., C. Song, K. Sawada, C.E. Young, W.G. Honer and A.G. Phillips, 2003. Tolerance to the anhedonic effects of lipopolysaccharide is associated with changes in syntaxin immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol., 6: 23-34.
    Direct Link  |  

  41. Song, C., 2002. The effect of thymectomy and IL-1 on memory: an implication between depression and immunity. Brain Behav. Immun., 6: 557-568.
    PubMed  |  

  42. Song, C., 2002. Anxiety and immune system: Recent developments. Brain Pharmacol., 1: 129-145.

  43. Maes, M., A. Van Gastel, L. Delmeire, G. Kenis, E. Bosmans and C. Song, 2002. Platelet α2-adrenoceptor density in humans: Relationships to stress-induced anxiety, psychasthenic constitution, gender and stress-induced changes in the inflammatory response system. Psychol. Med., 32: 919-928.
    Direct Link  |  

  44. Leonard, B.E. and C. Song, 2002. Changes in the immune system in rodent models of depression. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol., 5: 345-556.
    PubMed  |  

  45. Song, C., 2001. Anxiety and immune system: The modulation of benzodiazepines. Stress Health, 17: 129-131.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  46. Song, C., B.E. Leonard, A. Phillips and D. Horrobin, 2000. Changes in behavior, neurochemistry, endocrine and immune functions caused by different routes, doses and durations of IL-1 administration in the rat. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol., 3: S348-S349.

  47. Song, C., A.H. Lin, G. Kenis, E. Bosmans and M. Maes, 2000. Immunosuppressive effects of clozapine and haloperidol: Enhanced production of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Schizophrenia Res., 2: 157-164.
    CrossRef  |  

  48. Song, C., 2000. The interaction between cytokines and neurotransmitters in depression and stress: Possible mechanism of antidepressant treatment. Human Psychopharmacol. Clin. Exp., 15: 199-211.
    PubMed  |  

  49. Lin, A., C. Song, G. Kenis, E. Bosmans, R. de Jongh, S. Scharpe and M. Maes, 2000. The in vitro immunosuppressive effects of moclobemide in healthy volunteers. J. Affect. Disord., 58: 69-74.
    CrossRef  |  

  50. Song, C., Z. Merali and H. Anisman, 1999. Interaction of stress and cytokines interleukine-1, 2 and 6 at the nucleus accumbens; an in vivo microdialysis. Neuroscience, 88: 823-836.

  51. Song, C., M. Vandewoude, W. Stevens, L. de Clerck and M. Van der Planken et al., 1999. Alterations in immune functions during normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. Psychiat. Res., 85: 71-80.
    CrossRef  |  

  52. Song, C., G. Kenis, A. van Gastel, E. Bosmans, A. Lin and M. Maes, 1999. Influence of psychological stress on immune-inflammatory variables in normal humans. Part II. Altered serum concentrations of natural anti-inflammatory agents and soluble membrane antigens of monocytes and T lymphocytes. Psychiat. Res., 85: 293-303.
    PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

  53. Song, C., A. Lin, R. de Jong, E. Vandoolaeghe and G. Kenis et al., 1999. Cytokines in detoxified patients with chronic alcoholism without liver disease: Increased monocytic cytokine production. Biol. Psychiat., 45: 1212-1216.
    CrossRef  |  

  54. Maes, M., N. DeVos, A. Wauters, P. Demedts and C. Song et al., 1999. Inflammatory markers in younger vs elderly normal volunteers and in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J. Psychiatr. Res., 3: 397-405.
    PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

  55. Maes, M., D. van Bockstaele, A. van Gastel, C. Song, 1999. Influence of psychological stress on immune-inflammatory variables in normal humans, part I: changes in leukocyte subset distribution shows interrelated immune suppression and activation. Neuropsychobiology, 39: 1-9.

  56. Maes, M., C. Song, A.H. Lin, R. Pioli, G. Kenis, M. Kubera, E. Bosmans, 1999. In vitro immunoregulatory effects of lithium in health volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 143: 401-407.
    PubMed  |  

  57. Maes, M., C. Song, A. Gastel, C. Schotte and H. Neels et al., 1999. The effects of psychological stress on leukocyte subset distribution in humans: evidence of immune activation. Neuropsychobiology, 39: 1-9.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

  58. Maes, M., A. Lin, S. Bonaccorso, C. Song and F. Goossens et al., 1999. Lower activity of serum peptidases in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. Alcohol, 17: 1-6.
    PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

  59. Leonard, B.E. and C. Song, 1999. Stress, depression and role of cytokines. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 461: 251-265.
    PubMed  |  

  60. De Vos, N., C. Song, A.H. Lin, P. Demedts and A. Wauters et al., 1999. Lower serum zinc in relation to serum albumin and proinflammatory cytokines in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients without apparent liver disease. Neuropsychobiology, 39: 144-150.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

  61. Maes M, Song C, A.H. Lin, S. Bonaccorso, G. Kenis et al., 1999. Negative immunoregulatory effects of antidepressants: inhibition of interferon-gamma and stimulation of interleukin-10 secretion. Neuropsychopharmacology, 20: 370-379.
    PubMed  |  

  62. Van Hunsel, F., A. Van Gastel, H. Neels, A. Wauters and C. ,Song et al., 1998. The influence of psychological stress on total serum protein and patterns obtained in serum protein electrophoresis. Psychol. Med., 28: 301-309.
    PubMed  |  

  63. Song, C., 1998. The role of cytokines in depressive illness. CNS, 1: 14-17.

  64. Song, C. and B.E. Leonard, 1998. Comparison between the effects of sigma receptor ligand JO 1784 and neuropeptide Y on immune functions. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 345: 79-87.
    PubMed  |  

  65. Song ,C., A. Lin, S. Bonaccorso, C. Heide and R. Verkerk et al., 1998. The inflammatory response system and the availability of plasma tryptophan in patients with primary sleep disorders and major depression. J. Affect. Disord., 49: 211-219.
    PubMed  |  

  66. Maes, M., C. Song, A. Lin, R. de Jongh and A. van Gastel et al., 1998. The effects of psychological stress on humans: increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a Th1-like response in stress-induced anxiety. Cytokine, 10: 313-318.
    PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

  67. Maes, M., A. Lin, E. Bosmans, C. Song and E. Vandoolaeghe et al., 1998. Serotonin-immune interactions in detoxified chronic alcoholic patients without apparent liver disease: activation of the inflammatory response system and lower plasma total tryptophan. Psychiat. Res., 78: 151-161.
    PubMed  |  

  68. Lu, Z.W., C. Song, A.V. Ravindran, Z. Merali and H. Anisman, 1998. Influence of a psychogenic and a neurogenic stressor on several indices of immune functioning in different strains of mice. Brain Behav. Immun., 12: 7-22.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

  69. Connor, T.J., C. Song, B.E. Leonard, Z. Merali and H. Anisman, 1998. Comparative effect of acute central cytokine administration on behavioural, neurochemical, endocrine and immune parameters in the rat. Neuroscience, 84: 923-933.

  70. Bonaccorso, S., A. Lin, C. Song, G. Kenis and E. Bosmans et al., 1998. Serotonin-immune interactions in elderly volunteers and in patients with Alzheimer's disease (dat): lower plasma tryptophan availability to the brain in the elderly and increased serum interleukin-6 in DAT. Age, 10: 316-323.
    PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

  71. Song, C., B. Earley, and B.E. Leonard, 1997. Effect of chronic pretreatment with the sigma ligand JO 1784 on CRF-induced changes in behaviour, neurotransmitter and immunological function in the rat. Neuropsychobiology, 35: 200-204.
    PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

  72. Song, C. and B.E. Leonard, 1997. Changes in Behaviour, Neurotransmitters and Neutrophil Function in Olfactory Bulbectomized Rats: Effects of Chronic Desipramine Treatment. Human Psychopharm., 12: 99-105.
    CrossRef  |  

  73. Song, C. B. Earley and B.E. Leonard, 1997. Effect of chronic treatment with piracetam and tacrine on some changes caused by thymectomy in the rat brain. Pharmac. Biochem. Behav., 56: 697-704.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

  74. Leonard, B.E. and C. Song, 1997. Immune, endocrine and neurotransmitter changes in chronic stress and depression. Stress Med., 13: 217-227.
    PubMed  |  

  75. Anisman, H., Z.W. Lu, C. Song, P. Kent, D.C. McIntyre and Z. Merali, 1997. Influence of psychogenic and neurogenic stressors on endocrine and immune activity: differential effects in fast and slow seizing rat strains. Brain Behav, Immun., 11: 63-74.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

  76. Song, C., B. Earley, B.E. Leonard, 1996. The effects of central administration of neuropeptide Y on behavior, neurotransmitter, and immune functions in the olfactory bulbectomized rat model of depression. Brain Behav. Immun., 10: 1-16.
    PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

  77. Song, C. and B.E. Leonard, 1996. Behavioural and immunological effects of the antihistamine terfenadine in olfactory bulbectomized rat. Europ. Neuropsychopharmacol., 6: 157-162.
    PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

  78. Leonard, B.E. and C. Song, 1996. Stress and the immune system in the etiology of anxiety and depression. Pharmac. Biochem. Behav., 54: 299-303.
    PubMed  |  

  79. Song, C., B.E. Leonard, 1995. The effect of olfactory bulbectomy in the rat, alone or in combination with antidepressants and endogenous factors, on immune function. Human Psychopharmacol., 10: 7-18.
    CrossRef  |  

  80. Song, C., B.E. Leonard, 1995. Interleukin-2 induced changes in behaviour, neurotransmitter and immune functions in the olfactory bulbectomized rat: IL-2 may be a modulator of depression in the central nervous system. NeuroImmunoModulation, 2: 263-273.

  81. Song, C., B. Earley and B.E. Leonard, 1995. Behavioural, neurochemical and immunological responses to CRF administration: is CRF a mediator of stress or anxiety response? Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 771: 55-72.

  82. Song, C., T. Dinan, and B.E. Leonard, 1994. Changes in Immunoglobulin, Complement and Acute Phase Protein Levels in the Depressed Patients and Normal Controls. J. Affect. Disord., 30: 283-288.
    PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

  83. Song, C., J.P. Kelly and B.E. Leonard, 1994. The effect of stressful behavioural exposure on endocrine and immune parameters in the rat. Stress Med., 10: 239-245.
    CrossRef  |  

  84. Song, C., J.P. Kelly and B.E. Leonard, 1994. Alterations in immune and endocrine parameters following olfactory bulbectomy. Med. Sci. Res., 22: 593-595.

  85. Song, C., B.E. Leonard, 1994. An acute phase protein response in the olfactory bulbectomized rat: effect of sertraline treatment. Med. Sci. Res., 22: 313-314.

  86. Song, C., A.A. Killeen and B.E. Leonard, 1994. Catalase, Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in Neutrophils of Sham-Operated and Olfactory-Bulbectomised Rats following Chronic Treatment with Desipramine and Lithium Chloride. Neuropsychobiology, 30: 24-28.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

  87. Song, C. and B.E. Leonard, 1994. The effects of chronic lithium chloride administration on some behaviour and immune functions in olfactory bulbectomized rats. Psychopharmacol., 8: 40-47.

  88. Song, C. and B.E. Leonard, 1994. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors reverse the impairments in behaviour, neurotransmitter and immune functions in the olfactory bulbectomized rat. Human Psychopharmacol., 9: 135-146.
    CrossRef  |  

  89. Song, C., J.P. Kelly and B.E. Leonard, 1993. Is the state of leukocyte adhesiveness / aggregation an immune marker of stress in olfactory bulbectomized rats. Stress Med., 9: 255-258.

  90. Song, C. and B.E. Leonard, 1993. The effect of IL-2 on the lymphocyte proliferation in olfactory bulbectomized rats in vitro. Med. Sci. Res., 21: 449-450.

  91. Song, C. and B.E. Leonard, 1993. Effect of thymopeptides on behaviour and some immunological response in olfactory bulbectomised rats. Med. Sci. Res., 20: 929-930.
    Direct Link  |  

  92. Yu, C., P. Zuo and C. Song, 1992. Study of experimental hypoparathyroidism in rats. III. Fluidity changes in brain synaptolemma. Chin Med. Sci. J., 7: 213-215.

  93. Song, C. and R. Chen, 1992. The effect of acupuncture on the uptake of [3H]-5-HT in the raphe nuclei of midbrain of adult and aging rats. J. Tsinghua Univ., 31: 78-83.

  94. Song, C. and Y. Guong, 1991. The responses of tectal neurons in common toads to reversal square grating. J. Tsinghua Univ., 131: 65-71.

  95. Song, C. and S. Bao, 1991. The relationship between catecholamine and thymopeptides in ageing brain. J. Gerontol., 11: 370-372.

  96. Song, C. and P. Zuo, 1991. Study of experimental hypoparathyroidism in rat: the fluidity changes in brain synaptolemma. Basic Med. Sci. Clin., 11: 54-57.