Dr. Prabhat Kumar Mandal

Dr. Prabhat Kumar Mandal

Professor
Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, India


Highest Degree
PostDoc Fellow in Food Science and Biotechnology from Hankyong National University, Anseong, South Korea

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Biography

Dr. Prabhat Kumar Mandal was born in 1967 in West Bengal, got BVSc&AH from Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kolkata, in 1991 and did his MVSc& PhD majoring in Livestock Products Technology from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagarin the year 1993 and 1996, respectively. He worked for a short period (1996) as Scientist (ARS) in ICAR and then joined as Assistant Professor in Dept. of Livestock Products Technology in September 1996, in Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pondicherry. He was promoted as Associate Professor in March, 2005 and Professor from March, 2011. Dr. Mandal is teaching several UG and PG courses related to Livestock Products Technology for 22 years and engaged in research on Meat Science and Technology since last 25 years. His research achievements include development of chicken meat balls from spent hen meat, utilization of blood protein isolates in sausages and cakes, development of poultry products utilizing edible byproducts, low fat restructured chicken block and using gizzard and natural preservatives. Presently he is working on development of functional meat foods with natural preservatives and functional additives.He worked as Visiting Professor in Hankyong National University, South Korea and Konkuk University, Seoul from March, 2008 to February, 2010. He was Associate Editor/Editor, Journal of Meat Science published by IMSA since 2003-13. Presently Dr. Mandal is Editor-in-Chief of International Journal of Meat Science, Journal of Meat Science and Journal of Food & Nutrition Research (International). He has Edited an advance reference book “Animal Products Technology” and co-author of a text books on “Poultry, Egg and Fish Processing Technology” and “Practical Meat Science” for PG level and text books “Abattoir, Byproducts and Wool” and Handbook of Meat Science for U.G. Veterinary students.Dr. Mandal is a Fellow of Indian Poultry Science Association and Indian Meat Science Association and Member Asian Council of Science Editors.He has published /Authored/co-authored/edited 53 research papers, 11 books, 30 book chapters, 20 review papers, 22 invited papers, 41 papers in Symposium, 3 lab manuals, and 3 popular articles (total=183) related to Meat Science, Food Science, Poultry Science, Animal Science and Biotechnology in National and International Publishers/Journals of repute.

Area of Interest:

Food Science Technology
100%
Food Processing
62%
Food Preservation
90%
Food Quality
75%
Food Safety
55%

Selected Publications

  1. Narsaiah, K., A.K. Biswas and P.K. Mandal, 2020. Nondestructive Methods for Carcass and Meat Quality Evaluation. In: Meat Quality Analysis: Advanced Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Technologies, Biswas, A.K. and P.K. Mandal (Eds.). Chapter 3, Academic Press, New York, USA., ISBN: 978-0-12-819233-7, pp: 37-49.

  2. Mandal, P.K. and A.K. Biswas, 2020. Modern Techniques for Rapid Detection of Meatborne Pathogens. In: Meat Quality Analysis: Advanced Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Technologies, Biswas, A.K. and P.K. Mandal (Eds.). Chapter 16, Academic Press, New York, USA., ISBN: 978-0-12-819233-7, pp: 287-303.

  3. Biswas, A.K., S. Tandon and P.K. Mandal, 2020. Calpain-Assisted Postmortem Aging of Meat and its Detection Methods. In: Meat Quality Analysis: Advanced Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Technologies, Biswas, A.K. and P.K. Mandal (Eds.). Chapter 7, Academic Press, New York, USA., ISBN: 978-0-12-819233-7, pp: 101-114.

  4. Biswas, A.K. and P.K. Mandal, 2020. Current Perspectives of Meat Quality Evaluation: Techniques, Technologies and Challenges. In: Meat Quality Analysis: Advanced Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Technologies, Biswas, A.K. and P.K. Mandal (Eds.). Chapter 1, Academic Press, New York, USA., ISBN: 978-0-12-819233-7, pp: 3-17.

  5. Ajaykumar, V.J. and P.K. Mandal, 2020. Modern Concept and Detection of Spoilage in Meat and Meat Products. In: Meat Quality Analysis: Advanced Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Technologies, Biswas, A.K. and P.K. Mandal (Eds.). Chapter 18, Academic Press, New York, USA., ISBN: 978-0-12-819233-7, pp: 335-349.

  6. Mandal, P.K. and A.K. Biswas, 2019. Modern trends in detection of microbial spoilage of muscle foods-A review. Food Sci. Nutr. Technol., Vol. 4. 10.23880/fsnt-16000184.
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  7. Biswas, A.K. and P.K. Mandal, 2019. Meat Quality Analysis: Advanced Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Technologies. 1st Edn., Academic Press, USA., ISBN-13: 978-0128192337, Pages: 350.

  8. Vashi, Y., S. Naskar, S. Banik and P.K. Mandal, 2018. Advances in genetic improvement of meat quality traits in pig. J. Nutr. Biol., 3: 177-185.
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  9. Reddy, D.M., G.V.B. Reddy and P.K. Mandal, 2018. Application of natural antioxidants in meat and meat products-A review. Food Nutr. J., Vol. 7. .
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  10. Kumar, A.V., U.K. Pal, P.K. Mandal, S. Kasthuri and P.X. Antony, 2018. Antimicrobial efficacy of cardamom and star anise powders on E. coli O157: H7 and other microbial quality indicators in minced beef under refrigeration storage (5±1° C). J. Meat Sci., 13: 32-36.
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  11. Sen, A.R. and P.K. Mandal, 2017. Use of natural antioxidants in muscle foods and their benefits in human health: An Overview. Int. J. Meat Sci. (In Press). .
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  12. Pal, U.K., L. Lalchamliani, P.K. Mandal and S. Kasthuri, 2017. Traditional Meat Products/Preparations of Bengal and North Eastern India-Present Status and Future Prospects. In: Climate Change and Sustainable Food Production, Sunil, B., A. Irshad, V.N. Vasudevan and T. Sathu (Eds.). Excel India Publ., India, ISBN: 978-93-86724-13-7, pp: 265-278.

  13. Muthukumar, M. and P.K. Mandal, 2017. Concerns and consequences of industrial livestock and meat production. J. Meat Sci., 12: 1-9.
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  14. Mandal, P.K. and U.K. Pal, 2017. Use of Functional Phyto-Preservatives in Poultry Meat and Meat Products. In: Climate Change and Sustainable Food Production, Sunil, B., A. Irshad, V.N. Vasudevan and T. Sathu (Eds.). Excel India Publ., India, ISBN: 978-93-86724-13-7, pp: 237-250.

  15. Mandal, P.K. and A.K. Biswas, 2017. Handbook of Meat Science. Satish Serial Publisher, New Delhi, ISBN: 978-93-86200-41-9.

  16. Kasthuri, S., P.K. Mandal, U.K. Pal, N. Elanchezhian and S.V. Perumal, 2017. Effect of incorporation of drumstick leaf and jamun seed powder on sensory quality of functional chicken chips. J. Meat Sci., 12: 14-18.

  17. Kasthuri, S., P.K. Mandal and U.K. Pal, 2017. Efficacy of drumstick leaf and jamun seed powder as preservative in chicken chips. J. Meat Sci., 12: 52-59.
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  18. Biswas, A.K. and P.K. Mandal, 2017. Practical Meat Science. Satish Serial Publisher, New Delhi, ISBN: 978-93-86200-39-6.

  19. Biswas, A.K. and P.K. Mandal, 2017. Meat-Borne Pathogens and use of Natural Antimicrobials for Food Safety. In: Food-borne Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistance, Singh, O.V. (Ed.). Willey Blackwell, New York.

  20. Kumar, H.T.S., U.K. Pal, P.K. Mandal and C.D. Das, 2016. Quality and shelf life of dressed chicken from different sources under refrigeration (4±1°c). J. Meat Sci., 11: 26-30.

  21. Kasthuri, S., P.K. Mandal and U.K. Pal, 2016. Development of functional chicken chips using flaxseed and oats powder. J. Meat Sci., 11: 65-70.

  22. Hong, G.E., P.K. Mandal, J.H. Kim, W.J. Park, J.W. Oh, K.W. Lim and C.H. Lee, 2016. Influence of lime juice on the pink discoloration and quality of sous‐vide processed chicken breast during refrigerated storage. J. Food Qual., 39: 726-731.
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  23. Biswas, A.K., P.K. Mandal and G. Jairath, 2016. Strategies to develop healthier meat and meat products. J. Meat Sci., 11: 1-14.

  24. Reddy, G.V.B., P.K. Mandal, A.R. Sen and K.S. Reddy, 2015. Developments in science, technology, quality and constraints of restructured meat products: A review. Int. J. Meat Sci., 5: 14-48.

  25. Pyun, C.W., P.K. Mandal, G.E. Hong and C.H. Lee, 2015. Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide content of rat liver and brain. Trop. J. Pharmaceut. Res., 14: 1225-1230.

  26. Najeeb, A.P., P.K. Mandal and U.K. Pal, 2015. Efficacy of leaves (drumstick, mint and curry leaves) powder as natural preservatives in restructured chicken block. J. Food Sci. Technol., 52: 3129-3133.

  27. Najeeb, A.P., P.K. Mandal and U.K. Pal, 2015. Efficacy of gooseberry, tomato and red grapes powder as preservative in restructured chicken block. J. Meat Sci., 10: 21-25.
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  28. Mini, K.P., K.V. Venkateswaran, S. Gomathinayagam, S. Bijargi and P.K. Mandal, 2015. Anthelmintic activity of plants especially of Aristolocia species in Haemonchosis: A review. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 10: 623-645.

  29. Lee, M.Y., G.E. Hong, H.P. Zhang, C.Y. Yang, K.H. Han, P. K. Mandal and C.H. Lee, 2015. Production of the isoflavone aglycone and antioxidant activities in black soymilk using fermentation with Streptococcus thermophilus S10. Food Sci. Biotechnol., 24: 537-544.

  30. Biswas, A.K. and P.K. Mandal, 2015. Text Book of Abattoir Practices, Byproducts and Wool. Satish Serial Publisher, New Delhi.

  31. Bhuvana, K.S. and P.K. Mandal, 2015. Garcinia Fruit as Preservative of Chicken Meat. Lambert Academic Publisher, Germany.

  32. Premanand, R., U.K. Pal, G. Gawdaman, C.D. Das and P.K. Mandal, 2014. Assessment of heavy metal levels in muscle, liver and kidney of sheep and goats slaughtered in municipality abattoir of puducherry, India. J. Meat Sci., 9: 40-43.

  33. Najeeb, A.P., P.K. Mandal and U.K. Pal, 2014. Efficacy of fruits (red grapes, gooseberry and tomato) powder as natural preservatives in restructured chicken slices. Int. Food Res. J., 21: 2431-2436.
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  34. Najeeb, A.P., P.K. Mandal and U.K. Pal, 2014. Effect of drumstick, mint and curry leaves powder on the shelf life of restructured chicken block. Indian J. Poult. Sci., 49: 274-278.
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  35. Kumar, H.T.S., U.K. Pal, P.K. Mandal and C. Das, 2014. Changes in the quality of dressed Chicken obtained from different sources during frozen storage. Exp. Anim. Med. Res., 4: 95-100.

  36. Kim, J.G., P.K. Mandal, K.D. Choi, C.W. Pyun, G.E. Hong and C.H. Lee, 2014. Beneficial dietary effect of turmeric and sulphur on weight gain, fat deposition and lipid profile of serum and liver in rats. J. Food Sci. Technol., 51: 774-779.

  37. Das, S.K., S. Biswas and P.K. Mandal, 2014. Standardization, characterization and storage stability of Chevon Pithe: A traditional Indian meat cake. Int. J. Meat Sci., 4: 1-14.

  38. Biswas, A.K. and P.K. Mandal, 2014. Poultry, Egg and Fish Processing Technology. Studium Press, India.

  39. Abida, J., U.K. Pal and P.K. Mandal, 2014. Marinated Chicken with Organic Acids. Lambert Academic Publisher, Germany.

  40. Mandal, P.K., S. Cytyarasan and U.K. Pal, 2013. Murukku (Indian Snack) with Chicken Skin. Lambert Academic Publisher, Germany.

  41. Mandal, P.K. and A.K. Biswas, 2013. Animal Products Technology. Studium Press, India.

  42. Son, E.J., U.K. Pal, P.K. Mandal, G.E. Hong, S.K. Kim and C.H. Lee, 2012. Hypolipidaemic effect of processed sulfer, Allium tuberosum Rottl and fermented Allium tuberosum Rottl. in Rat. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 7: 812-821.
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  43. Najeeb, A.P., P.K. Mandal, U.K. Pal and V.K. Rao, 2012. Developement and evaluation of egg patties by incorporating chicken gizzard. J. Meat Sci., 8: 83-86.

  44. Mandal, P.K., A.P. Najeeb and U.K. Pal, 2012. Harvest and Post Harvest Practices for Chicken. In: Chickens: Physiology, Diseases and Farming Practices, Kapur, I. and A. Mehra (Eds.). Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp: 71-88.

  45. Hong, G.E., P.K. Mandal, K.W. Lim and C.H. Lee, 2012. Fermentation increases isoflavone aglycone contents in black soybean pulp. Asian J. Animal Vet. Adv., 7 : 502-511.
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  46. Bhuvana, K.S., P.K. Mandal and U.K. Pal, 2012. Garcinia cambogia fruit extract enhances the shelf life of pork fry in room temperature. Int. J. Meat Sci., 2: 27-33.
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  47. Sudheer, K., P.K. Mandal, U.K. Pal, H.T.S. Kumar, C.D. Das and V.K. Rao, 2011. Quality of soup prepared from broiler head and shank. J. Meat Sci., 7: 50-52.

  48. Sudheer, K., P.K. Mandal, C. Das, U.K. Pal, H.T. SantoshKumar and V.K. Rao, 2011. Development of restructured chicken block utilizing gizzard and its refrigerated storage stability. J. Food Sci. Technol., 48: 96-101.
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  49. Sudheer, K., C. Das, P.K. Mandal, U.K. Pal and V.K. Rao, 2011. Effect of frozen storage on the physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of low fat restructured chicken block incorporated with gizzard. Int. J. Meat Sci., 1: 62-69.
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  50. Santosh Kumar, H.T., U.K. Pal, V. Kesava Rao, C.D. Das and P.K. Mandal, 2011. Effects of processing practices on the physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of fresh chicken meat. Int. J. Meat Sci., .
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  51. Santosh Kumar, H.T., U.K. Pal, P.K. Mandal and K. Sudhir et al., 2011. Microbial quality of locally available chicken in Pondicherry. Indian Vet. J., 88: 57-59.

  52. Rajaganapathy, V., F. Xavier, D. Sreekumar and P.K. Mandal, 2011. Heavy metal contamination in soil, water and fodder and their presence in livestock and products: A review. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 4: 234-249.
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  53. Pal, U.K., P.K. Mandal, V.K. Rao and C.D. Das, 2011. Quality and utility of goat milk with special reference to India: An overview. Asian J. Anim. Sci., 5: 56-63.
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  54. Pal, U.K., P.K. Mandal, C.D. Das, V. Kesava Rao and S. Venugopal, 2011. Effect of breed on slaughter and carcass characteristics of adult male chickens. J. Meat Sci., 7: 46-48.

  55. Mandal, P.K., S. Cttyarasan, U.K. Pal, V.K. Rao and C.D. Das, 2011. Development of snack (Murukku) by incorporation of broiler skin. J. Meat Sci., 7: 54-57.

  56. Mandal, P.K., A.K. Biswas, K. Choi and U.K. Pal, 2011. Methods for rapis detection of foodborne pathogens: An overview. Am. J. Food Technol., 6: 87-102.

  57. Mandal, P.K., 2011. Thermal Processing of Meat. In: Technology of Muscle Foods, Mahendrakar, N.S. and N.M. Sachindra (Eds.). Studium Press, USA., pp: 285-321.

  58. Mandal, P.K., K. Sudheer, U.K. Pal, H.T.S. Kumar, C.D. Das and V.K. Rao, 2011. Preparation of low fat restructured chicken slice utilizing gizzard. J. Meat Sci., 7: 56-59.

  59. Kim, I.S., P.K. Mandal, S.K. Jin and S.N. Kang, 2011. Quality of low-fat pork sausages with tomato powder as colour and functional additive during refrigerated storage. J. Food Sci. Technol., 48: 591-597.
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  60. Jana, A.H. and P.K. Mandal, 2011. Manufacturing and quality of Mozzarella cheese: A review. Int. J. Dairy Sci., 6: 199-226.
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  61. Biswas, A.K., N. Kondaiah, A.S.R. Anjaneyulu and P.K. Mandal, 2011. Causes, concerns, consequences and control of microbial contaminants in meat-A review. Int. J. Meat Sci., 1: 27-35.
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  62. Baatartsogt, O., P.K. Mandal, H.K. Lim, C.H. Lee, J.H. Lee and K. Choi, 2011. Differential expression of immuno-inflammatory genes in synovial cells from knee after inducing post-traumatic arthritis in swine. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 6: 333-343.
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  63. Yang, C.Y., P.K. Mandal, K.H. Han, M. Fukushima, K.D. Choi, C.J. Kim and C.H. Lee, 2010. Capsaicin and tocopherol in red pepper seed oil enhances the thermal oxidative stability during frying. J. Food Sci. Technol., 47: 162-165.
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  64. Lam, P.D., P.K. Mandal, Y.S. Hak and S.G. Hwang, 2010. Study of the molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of bee venom in lipopolysaccharide stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Trop. J. Pharma. Res., 9: 19-26.

  65. Kandipan, G., A.S.R. Anjaneyulu, V.K. Rao, U.K. Pal, P.K. Mandal and C.K. Das, 2010. Common ingredients used in traditional buffalo meat products. Beverage Food World, 2010: 52-55.

  66. Jin, S.K., P.K. Mandal, I.S. Kim and S.N. Kang, 2010. Effects of packaging methods and refrigerated storage on the quality of dry-cured pork neck. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 5: 526-536.
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  67. Biswas, A.K., N. Kondaiah, A.S.R. Anjaneyulu and P.K. Mandal, 2010. Food safety concerns of pesticides, veterinary drug residues and mycotoxins in meat and meat products. Asian J. Anim. Sci., 4: 46-55.
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  68. Banerjee, R., P.K. Mandal, U.K. Pal and K. Ray, 2010. Productivity and genetic potential of garole sheep of India: A review. Asian J. Anim. Sci., 4: 170-189.
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  69. So, H.K., P.K. Mandal, O. Batartsogot, H.K. Lim, C.H. Lee, J.H. Lee and K.D. Choi. 2009. Biomarkers identified from spleen lymphocyte of broilers infected with Salmonella galinarum after feeding korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum). Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 4: 148-159.

  70. Mandal, P.K., K. Choi, S.G. Min and C.H. Lee, 2009. Application of nanotechnology in food packaging: An overview. Korean J. Food Sci. Anim. Resour., 29: 403-408.

  71. Lim, H.K., K. Choi, P.K. Mandal, O. Baatartsogt, C.H. Lee, J.H. Lee and H.B. Kim, 2009. Transcriptional profiling of spleen lymphocyte in fowl typhoid of broilers. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 4: 66-75.
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  72. Li, G.H., P.K. Mandal, H.K. Lim, O. Baatartsogt and C.H. Lee et al., 2009. Purification and characterization of a protease from korean pear (Pyrus serotina L.) as meat tenderizer. Korean J. Food Sci. Anim. Resourc., 29: 157-163.
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  73. Hong, G.E., P.K. Mandal, C.W. Pyun, K. Choi and S.K. Kim et al., 2009. Isoflavone aglycone from fermented soy pulp prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 4: 288-296.
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  74. Banerjee, R., P.K. Mandal, S. Bose, M. Banerjee and B. Manna, 2009. Quality evaluation of meat, skin and wool from garole sheep-a promising breed from India. Asian J. Anim. Sci., 3: 39-46.
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  75. Baatartsogt, O., K. Choi, P.K. Mandal, H.K. Lim, J.D. Oh and S.H. Chang, 2009. Candidate molecule indentified by proteomics study of synovial cells in experimental post-traumatic arthritis of knee in swine. Biotechnology, 8: 13-23.
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  76. Baatartsogt, O., K. Choi, P.K. Mandal, H.K. Lim and G.H. Li et al., 2009. Gene expression profile of synovial cells in experimental post-traumatic arthritis of knee in swine. Biotechnology, 8: 70-77.
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  77. Mandal, P.K., U.K. Pal, C.D. Das, V.K. Rao, D. Umamaheswari and S. Venugopal, 2004. Effect of sex of white leghorn birds on the carcass characteristics and products quality. J. Meat Sci., 2: 35-38.

  78. Mandal P.K., 2004. Processing and quality of some unconventional meat. JIVA, 2: 29-31.

  79. Pal, U.K., C.D. Das, P.K. Mandal, V.K. Rao and S. Venugopal, 2003. Carcasscharacteristics, meat and sausage quality of vanaraj birds. J. Meat Sci., 1: 16-19.

  80. Mandal, P.K., V.K. Rao and B.N. Kowale, 2003. Functional properties of serum protein isolates prepared from buffalo blood for food use. J. Meat Sci., 1: 34-36.

  81. Pal, U.K., P.K. Mandal, V.K. Rao and C.D. Das, 2002. Quality of deboned marinated chicken under refrigerated storage. Indian J. Poult Sci., 37: 299-300.

  82. Mandal, P.K., U.K. Pal, C.D. Das and V.K. Rao, 2002. Changes in the quality of restructured cured chicken during refrigerated storage. Indian J. Poult. Sci., 37: 151-154.
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  83. Mandal, P.K., V.K. Rao and B.N. Kowale, 2001. Quality of buffalo meat sausages containing decolourized globin protein isolate. J. Food Sci. Technol., 38: 493-494.
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  84. Pal, U.K., P.K. Mandal, V.K. Rao and C.D. Das, 2000. Effect of cooking methods on the quality of chicken liver. Indian J. Poult. Sci., 35: 361-363.
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  85. Mandal, P.K., V.K. Rao, B.N. Kowale and U.K. Pal, 2000. Utilization of serum protein isolate from buffalo blood in buffalo meat sausages. J. Food Sci. Technol., 37: 484-487.
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  86. Mandal, P.K., V.K. Rao and B.N. Kowale, 2000. Incorporation of serum protein and globin protein isolates in sponge cake. J. Food Sci. Technol., 37: 380-383.
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  87. Mandal, P.K., V.K. Rao, B.N. Kowale and U.K. Pal, 1999. Utilization of slaughter house blood in human food. J. Food Sci. Technol., 36: 91-104.
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  88. Mandal, P.K., V.K. Rao, B.N. Kowale and U.K. Pal, 1999. Quality and yield of buffalo blood and its fractions. Indian J. Anim. Prod. Manage., 15: 23-25.

  89. Mandal, P.K., V.K. Rao and B.N. Kowale, 1998. Preparation of serum protein isolate from buffalo blood and its quality evaluation. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 68: 1090-1092.

  90. Mandal, P.K. and U.K. Pal, 1998. Effect of cooking methods on the quality of meat and meat products: An overview. Beverage Food World, 1998: 40-42.

  91. Mandal, P.K., R.C. Keshri and V.N. Bachhil, 1996. Effect of cooking methods and storage on the quality of chicken meat balls. Indian J. Poult. Sci., 31: 66-68.

  92. Mandal, P.K., R.C. Keshri and V.N. Bachhil, 1996. Effect of cooking methods on the quality of chicken meatballs. Int. J. Anim. Sci., 11: 225-227.

  93. Wani, S.A., S. Kumar and P.K. Mandal, 1995. Tumbling and massaging: An emerging technology for meat industry. Indian Food Industry, 14: 37-41.

  94. Mandal, P.K., S. Kumar and S.A. Wani, 1995. Use of non-meat protein extenders in meat products. Indian Food Packer, 49: 51-57.

  95. Mandal, P.K., 1995. Role of beta agonists in meat production and their effects on meat quality. Beverage Food World, 22: 18-20.