Dr. Abdulhameed  Sabu

Dr. Abdulhameed Sabu

Associate Professor
Kannur University, India


Highest Degree
Ph.D. in Biotechnology from Cochin University of Science and Technology, India

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Biography

Dr. A Sabu is currently working as Associate Professor Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology School of Life Sciences, Kannur University, Thalassery Campus, Kannur. He served as Assistant Professor since 2006 as well as he is a former Scientist Fellow, CSIR Regional Research Laboratory and Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Paul Cezanne, France. He has completed his PhD in Biotechnology from Cochin University of Science and Technology. He has vast research experience at International level including Postdoctoral Fellow in Biotechnology, Complex Carbohydrate Research Centre, University of Georgia, USA, Laboratory of Biotransformation, Institute for Research and Development (IRD), University of Paul Cezanne France, Visiting scientist in the Biotechnology Department of Agricultural Chemical Technology, Technical University of Budapest, Hungry. He has received many awards including Post Doctoral Fellowship Institute for Research and Development (IRD) France, Young Scientist Research Project DST, Government of India. He has presented 22 papers at International Level as well as 19 papers at National level. Further, his services into research, he has written 13 chapters on Biotechnology in different books as well as 30 books. He has published 33 articles in peer reviewed journals at national and international level. Dr.Sabu was an Editorial member of the SciAlert UAE, American Journal of Microbiology UAE, in 2013. He has received 3 research grants. He performed his services of a mentor for 4 PhD students. He is a life member of many organizations including, Panel of Experts, Commission on Ecosystem Management, International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Switzerland (Since 2007), Ecosystem Services Expert, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, USA (Since 2008), Life member of Association of Microbiologists of India, Kerala Academy of Sciences, Society for Biotechnologists, Biotech Research Society of India and member of Academic Council, CUSAT (1997-1998), Senate, CUSAT (1998-1999), Board of Studies in Biotechnology, Kannur University (Since December 2010) Board of Studies in Health Science, University of Kerala (Since August 2013).

Area of Interest:

Molecular Sciences
100%
Microbial Biotechnology
62%
Bioactive Metabolism
90%
Fermentation
75%
Enzymes
55%

Education

2000

Ph.D.

Cochin University of Science and Technology, India

Biotechnology

Selected Publications

  1. Kumar, S.S., V. Jithin, V. Jijeesh, V. Gayathri, S. Shiburaj, M. Haridas and A. Sabu, 2018. Production and purification of alkaline protease from Exiguobacterium indicum TBG-PICH-001 isolated from soil samples of Pichavaram Estuary (Tamil Nadu). Indian J. Geo Mar. Sci., 47: 580-586.

  2. Vijayan, N., T.S. Swapna, M. Haridas and A. Sabu, 2017. Therapeutic Enzymes: L-Glutaminase. In: Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Production, Isolation and Purification of Industrial Products, Pandey, A., S. Negi and C.R. Soccol (Eds.). Elsevier, USA., ISBN: 978-0-444-63662-1, pp: 233-244.

  3. Vijayan, N., T.S. Swapna, G.S. Kiran and A Sabu, 2017. Medicinal Plants of India: Implications in Modern Medicine. In: Bioresources and Bioprocess in Biotechnology, Volume 1: Status and Strategies for Exploration, Sabu, A., S. Sugathan and N.S. Pradeep (Eds.). Springer, Singapore, ISBN: 978-981-10-3573-9, pp: 421-440.

  4. Vijayan, N., M. Haridas and A. Sabu, 2017. Stilbenes and its Derivatives in Traditional Medicine. In: Bioresources and Bioprocess in Biotechnology, Volume 2: Exploring Potential Biomolecules, Sugathan, S., N.S. Pradeep and A. Sabu (Eds.). Springer, Singapore, ISBN: 978-981-10-3573-9, pp: 407-418.

  5. Swapna, T.S. and A. Sabu, 2017. Probiotics. In: Bioresources and Bioprocess in Biotechnology, Volume 2: Exploring Potential Biomolecules, Sugathan, S., N.S. Pradeep and A. Sabu (Eds.). Springer, Singapore, ISBN: 978-981-10-3573-9, pp: 383-406.

  6. Sugathan, S., N.S. Pradeep and A. Sabu, 2017. Bioresources and Bioprocess in Biotechnology, Volume II: Exploring Potential Biomolecules. Springer, Singapore, ISBN: 978-981-10-3573-9, Pages: 438.

  7. Sabu, A., N.S. Pradeep and S. Sugathan, 2017. Bioresources and Bioprocess in Biotechnology, Volume 1: Status and Strategies for Exploration. Springer, Singapore, ISBN: 978-981-10-3573-9, Pages: 443.

  8. Pradeep, N.S., S. Shiburaj and A. Sabu, 2017. Bioresources: Current Status. In: Bioresources and Bioprocess in Biotechnology, Volume 1: Status and Strategies for Exploration, Sabu, A., S. Sugathan and N.S. Pradeep (Eds.). Springer, Singapore, ISBN: 978-981-10-3573-9, pp: 3-24.

  9. Kumar, S.S. and A. Sabu, 2017. Therapeutic Enzymes. In: Bioresources and Bioprocess in Biotechnology, Volume 2: Exploring Potential Biomolecules, Sugathan, S., N.S. Pradeep and A. Sabu (Eds.). Springer, Singapore, ISBN: 978-981-10-3573-9, pp: 45-74.

  10. Chandra, D.N., C.S. Suresh, G.A. Kumar, P.M. Sandeep, A. Sabu and M. Haridas, 2017. Implication of biotransformation of berberine and its derivatives on FtsZ protein: An in silico study. Int. J. Comput. Biol. Drug Des., 10: 1-11.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  11. Tomy, M.J., C.S. Sharanya, A. Sabu and M.K. Haridas, 2016. High benzoic acid production in a grape-based Ayurvedic medicinal wine (asava). Curr. Sci., 111: 1836-1841.
    Direct Link  |  

  12. Suresh, S., A. Sabu and M. Haridas, 2016. Interaction of aloe emodin with lipoxygenase towards the development of novel NSAIDs. Eur. J. Immunol., 46: 1165-1165.

  13. Devi, A., S. Prasanth, E. Murugesh, K.R. Haridas, A. Sabu and M. Haridas, 2016. A novel, poly (ethyl ethylene ether) inhibitor to trypsin from marine cyanobacteria, Lyngbya confervoides. Applied Biochem. Biotechnol., 178: 891-899.
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  14. Chandrika, B.B., M. Steephan, T.R.S. Kumar, A. Sabu and M. Haridas, 2016. Hesperetin and naringenin sensitize HER2 positive cancer cells to death by serving as HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Life Sci., 160: 47-56.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  15. Tomy, M.J., C.S. Sharanya, K.V. Dileep, S. Prasanth, A. Sabu, C. Sadasivan and M. Haridas, 2015. Derivatives form better lipoxygenase inhibitors than piperine: In vitro and in silico study. Chem. Biol. Drug Design, 85: 715-721.
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  16. Sabu, A. and M. Haridas, 2015. Fermentation in ancient Ayurveda: Its present implications. Front. Life Sci., 8: 324-331.
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  17. Chandra, D.N., D.S. Preethidan, A. Sabu and M. Haridas, 2015. Traditional fermentation of Ayurvedic medicine yields higher proinflammatory enzyme inhibition compared to wine-model product. Front. Life Sci., 8: 160-164.
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  18. Abhilash, J., K. Geethanandan, S.R. Bharath, A. Sabu, C. Sadasivan and M. Haridas, 2015. The crystal structure of a lectin from Butea monosperma: Insight into its glycosylation and binding of ligands. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 72: 1376-1383.
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  19. Tomy, M.J., K.V. Dileep, S. Prasanth, D.S. Preethidan, A. Sabu, C. Sadasivan and M. Haridas, 2014. Cuminaldehyde as a lipoxygenase inhibitor: In vitro and In silico validation. Applied Biochem. Biotechnol., 174: 388-397.
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  20. Sabu, A. and A. Augustine, 2013. Prospects in Bioscience: Addressing the Issues. Springer Science and Business Media, New York, ISBN: 9788132208105, Pages: 430.

  21. Preethidan, D.S., G. Arun, M.P. Surendran, S. Prasanth, A. Sabu, C. Sadasivan and M. Haridas, 2013. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of some Sida species due to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Curr. Sci., 105: 232-237.

  22. Prasanth, S., S. Valsan, A. Devi, D.S. Preethidan, M. Haridas and A. Sabu, 2013. A Novel Plate Assay System for Screening of Antimicrobial Agents and β-Lactamase Inhibitors from Natural Sources. In: Prospects in Bioscience: Addressing the Issues, Sabu, A. and A. Augustine (Eds.). Springer, New York, pp: 257-261.

  23. Roopesh, K., J. Abhilash, M. Haridas, A. Sabu, P.G. Isabelle, S. Roussos and C. Augur, 2012. Dioxygenase from Aspergillus fumigatus MC8: Molecular modelling and in silico studies on enzyme-substrate interactions. Mol. Simulation, 38: 144-151.
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  24. Jayachandran, K., I.C. Nair, T.S. Swapna and A. Sabu, 2012. Fermentation of Food Processing By-Products. In: Valorization of Food Processing By-Products, Chandrasekaran, M. (Ed.). CRC Press, USA., ISBN: 9781439848852, pp: 204-235.

  25. Chandra, D.N., J. Abhilash, G.K. Prasanth, A. Sabu, C. Sadasivan and M. Haridas, 2012. Inverted binding due to a minor structural change in berberine enhances its phospholipase A2 inhibitory effect. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 50: 578-585.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  26. Abdulhameed, S. and M. Chandrasekaran, 2012. L-Glutaminase Production by Marine Fungi. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH KG, USA., ISBN: 9783848426928, Pages: 136.

  27. Swapna, T.S. and A. Sabu, 2011. Polyphenols in Plant System. In: Chemistry and Biotechnology of Polyphenols, Sabu, A. (Ed.). CIBET Publishers, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

  28. Sebastian, R.M., C. Augur, T.S. Swapna and A. Sabu, 2011. Polystyrene Beads as an Inert Solid Support for the Production of Tannase with High Specific Activity under Solid State Fermentation. In: Chemistry and Biotechnology of Polyphenols, Sabu, A. (Ed.). CIBET Publishers, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, pp: 112-123.

  29. Sabu, A., C.N. Aguilar and S. Roussos, 2011. Chemistry and Biotechnology of Polyphenols. CiBET Publishers, Thiruvanathapuram, Kerala, India.

  30. Dileep, K.V., A. Joseph, A. Sabu, C. Sadasivan and M. Haridas, 2011. Modelling of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase. In: Chemistry and Biotechnology of Polyphenols, Sabu, A. (Ed.). CIBET Publishers, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

  31. Roopesh, K., S. Guyot, A. Sabu, M. Haridas, P.G. Isabelle, S. Roussos and C. Augur, 2010. Biotransformation of procyanidins by a purified fungal dioxygenase: Identification and characterization of the products using mass spectrometry. Process Biochem., 45: 904-913.
    CrossRef  |  

  32. Kiran, G.S., A. Sabu and J. Selvin, 2010. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by glycolipid biosurfactant produced from marine Brevibacterium casei MSA19. J. Biotechnol., 148: 221-225.
    PubMed  |  

  33. Brand, D., C.R. Soccol, A. Sabu and S. Roussos, 2010. Production of fungal biological control agents through solid state fermentation: A case study on Paecilomyces lilacinus against root-knot nematodes. Micologia Aplicada Int., 22: 31-48.
    Direct Link  |  

  34. Roopesh, K., A. Sabu and C. Augur, 2009. Purification and characterization of a fungal enzyme degrading specific plant polyphenols. Proceedings of the 21st Kerala Science Congress, January 29-31, 2009, Kollam -.

  35. Krishnankutty, R., S. Guyot, I. Perraud-Gaime, S. Roussos, A. Sabu and C. Augur, 2008. Characterization of a fungal procyanidin-degrading dioxygenase. Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Polyphenols, July 8th-11th, 2008, Salamanca, Spain. -.

  36. Roopesh, K., A. Sabu, I. Gaime Perraud, S. Roussos and C. Augur, 2007. Purification of a fungal enzyme capable of degrading specific plant polyphenols. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bioprocesses, SINAFERM, July 29 -1 August, 2007, Curtiba, Parana, Brazil. -.

  37. Gilna, V.V., K.M. Khaleel and A. Sabu, 2007. Isolation of novel tannase producing microorganisms from the mangrove forests of North Malabar. Proceedings of the 19th Kerala Science Congress, January 29-31, 2007, Kannur, pp: 3-17.

  38. Sabu, A., C. Augur, C. Swati and A. Pandey, 2006. Tannase production by Lactobacillus sp. ASR-S1 under solid-state fermentation. Process Biochem., 41: 575-580.
    CrossRef  |  

  39. Sabu, A., G.S. Kiran and A. Pandey, 2005. Purification and characterization of tannin acyl hydrolase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620. Food Technol. Biotechnol., 43: 133-138.

  40. Sabu, A., A. Pandey, M.J. Daud and G. Szakacs, 2005. Tamarind seed powder and palm kernel cake: Two novel agro residues for the production of tannase under solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620. Bioresour. Technol., 96: 1223-1228.
    Direct Link  |  

  41. Sabu, A., S. Babitha and A. Pandey, 2004. Novel agro residues for the production of tannase under solid state fermentation. Proceedings of the International Congress on Bioprocesses in Food Industries, July 11-13, 2004, Clermont Ferrand, France. -.

  42. Sabu, A., K.M. Nampoothiri and A. Pandey, 2004. L-Glutaminase as a Therapeutic Enzyme of Microbial Origin. In: Methods in Biotechnology, Vol. 17: Microbial Enzymes and Biotransformation, Barredo, J.L. (Ed.). Humana Press Inc., New Jersey, USA., pp: 75-90.

  43. Sabu, A., G.S. Kiran and A. Pandey, 2004. Purification and characterization of tannase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620. Proceedings of the International Conference on Biotechnology and Neuroscience, December 29-31, 2004, Cochin. India. -.

  44. Sabu, A., C. Swati and A. Pandey, 2004. Extracellular production of tannin acyl hydrolase under solid state fermentation by Lactobacillus sp. Proceedings of the International Conference on Biotechnology and Neuroscience, December 29th-31st, 2004, Cochin, India. -.

  45. Sabu, A., 2004. Microbial Enzymes: Production and Applications. L - Glutaminase. In: Concise Encyclopaedia of Bioresource Technology, Pandey, A. (Ed.). The Haworth Press, Inc., New York, pp: 517-525.

  46. Sabu, A., 2004. Enzymes that conquer dreaded diseases. Adv. Biotech., 3: 20-24.

  47. Sabu, A. and A. Pandey, 2004. Enzymes of Therapeutic Value. In: Kesavan Madhavan Nampoothiri, Enzyme Technology, Pandey, A., C. Webb, C.R. Soccol and C. Larroche (Eds.). Asiatech Publishers Inc., New Delhi, India, pp: 697-707.

  48. Renuka Devi, P.S., A. Sabu, T.E. Sheeja and P. Nambisan, 2004. Proline Accumulation and Salt Tolerance in Rice. In: Recent Advances in Biotechnological Applications of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture, Ravishankar, G.A. and L. Venkataraman (Eds.). Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, India, pp: 410-414.

  49. Pandey, A., F. Francis, A. Sabu and C.R. Soccol, 2004. General Aspects of Solid-State Fermentation. In: Concise Encyclopaedia of Bioresource Technology, Pandey, A. (Ed.). The Haworth Press, Inc., New York, USA., pp: 702-708.

  50. Nampoothiri, K.M., T.V. Baiju, C. Sandhya, A. Sabu, G. Szakacs and A. Pandey, 2004. Process optimization for antifungal chitinase production by Trichoderma harzianum. Process Biochem., 39: 1583-1590.
    CrossRef  |  

  51. Sabu, A., R.M. Sebastian and A. Pandey, 2003. Production of tannase on polystyrene beads and wheat bran under solid-state fermentation. Proceedings of the 6th National Symposium on Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, March 12-13, 2003, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi-.

  52. Sabu, A., K.M. Nampoothiri, P. Latha, V. Kannan, G. Szakacs and A. Pandey, 2003. Phytase Production under Solid-State Fermentation. In: New Horizons in Biotechnology, Roussos, S., C.R. Soccol, A. Pandey and C. Augur (Eds.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, ISBN-13: 9781402017186, pp: 27-34.

  53. Sabu, A., 2003. Sources, properties and applications of microbial therapeutic enzymes. Indian J. Biotechnol., 2: 334-341.
    Direct Link  |  

  54. Ramachandran, S., K. Roopesh, K.M. Nampoothiri, A. Sabu, G. Szakacs, C.R. Soccol and A. Pandey, 2003. Oil cakes - A potential substrate for phytase production by solid-state fermentation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Frontiers at the Interface of Chemistry and Biology, April 28-30, 2003, Trivandrum, India. -.

  55. Francis, F., A. Sabu, K.M. Nampoothiri, S. Ramachandran, S. Ghosh, G. Szakacs and A. Pandey, 2003. Use of response surface methodology for optimizing process parameters for the production of α-amylase by Aspergillus oryzae. Biochem. Eng. J., 15: 107-115.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  56. Bogar, B., G. Szakacs, A. Pandey, A. Sabu, J.C. Linden and R.P. Tengerdy, 2003. Production of phytase by Mucor racemosus in solid state fermentation. Biotechnol. Prog., 19: 312-319.

  57. Singhania, R.R., K.M. Nampoothiri, A. Sabu, C. Sandhya and A. Pandey, 2002. Production of gellan gum by Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Proceedings of the National Symposium On Bioactive Molecules, October 24-25, 2002, Trivandrum, -.

  58. Sabu, A., S.R. Kumar and M. Chandrasekaran, 2002. Continuous production of extracellular L- glutaminase by Ca-alginate immobilized marine Beauveria bassiana-BTMF S10 in a packed bed reactor. J. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 102-103: 71-79.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  59. Sabu, A., S. Sarita, A. Pandey, B. Bogar, G. Szakacs and C.R. Soccol, 2002. Solid state fermentation for production of phytase by Rhizopus oligosporus. J. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 103: 251-260.
    Direct Link  |  

  60. Ramachandran, S., K.M. Nampoothiri, A. Sabu, G. Szakacs and A. Pandey, 2002. Microbial synthesis of Alpha amylase using coconut oil cake. Proceedings of the one-day state level Seminar on Broad spectrum of enzymes-The emerging technology p 9, March 6, 2002, DBT and Karpagam arts and science college, Eachanari, Coimbatore -.

  61. Pandey, A., S. Ramachandran, K.M. Nampoothiri, A. Sabu and C. Sandhya, 2002. Developments in bioprocess technology. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Biotechnology in Industry, September 19-20, 2002, Cochin -.

  62. Nampoothiri, K.M., K. Begum, A. Sabu, G. Szakacs and A. Pandey, 2002. Microbial phytase: A tool for enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Proceedings of the Indo-Italian Workshop on Emerging Technologies for Industrial Wastewater and Environment, September 2-4, 2002, NEERI, Nagpur, India, pp: 364-370.

  63. Krishna, A.L., C. Sandhya, K.M. Nampoothiri, A. Sabu and A. Pandey, 2002. Production of chitinase by Trichoderma harzianum. Proceedings of the National Symposium On Bioactive Molecules, October 24-25, 2002, Trivandrum -.

  64. Kashyap, P., A. Sabu, A. Pandey, G. Szakacs and C.R. Soccolc, 2002. Extra-cellular L-glutaminase production by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii under solid-state fermentation. Process Biochem., 38: 307-312.
    CrossRef  |  

  65. Gautam, P., A. Sabu, A. Pandey, G. Szakacs and C.R. Soccol, 2002. Microbial production of extra-cellular phytase using polystyrene as inert solid support. Bioresour. Technol., 83: 229-233.
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  66. Francis, F., A. Sabu, K.M. Nampoothiri and A. Pandey, 2002. Synthesis of alpha-amylase by Aspergillus oryzae in solid-state fermentation. J. Basic Microbiol., 42: 322-326.

  67. Francis, F., A. Pandey, K.M. Nampoothiri and A. Sabu, 2002. Optimization of process parameters for alpha amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae in solid state fermentation. Proceedings of the Symposium On Biotechnology At the Turn of the Millennium, February 4-5, 2002, Anna University, Chennai -.

  68. Sarita, S., A. Sabu, A. Pandey, G. Szakacs and C.R. Soccol, 2001. Extracellular phytase of Aspergillus ficuum under solid-state fermentation. Proceedings of the International Conference on New Horizons in Biotechnology, April 18-21, 2001, Trivandrum India. -.

  69. Sabu, A., S. Sarita, A. Pandey, G. Szakacs and C.R. Soccol, 2001. Coconut oil cake as a substrate for the production of phytase by Rhizopus oligosporus under solid-state fermentation. Proceedings of the International Conference on New Horizons in Biotechnology, April 18-21, 2001, Trivandrum, India. -.

  70. Sabu, A., S. Rajeev Kumar and M. Chandrasekaran, 2001. Continuous production of extracellular L- glutaminase by Ca-alginate immobilized marine Beauveria bassiana-BTMF S10 in a packed bed reactor. Proceedings of the International Conference on New Horizons in Biotechnology, April 18-21, 2001, Trivandrum, India. -.

  71. Kumar, S.R., A. Sabu, T.R. Keerthi and M. Chandrasekaran, 2001. Production of Extracellular Glutaminase by immobilized marine Pseudomonas sp. BTMS 51. Proceedings of the International Conference on New Horizons in Biotechnology, April 18-21, 2001, Trivandrum, India. -.

  72. Sabu, A., T.R. Keerthi, S.R. Kumar and M. Chandrasekaran, 2000. L-glutaminase production by marine Beauveria bassiana under solid state fermentation. Process Biochem., 35: 705-710.
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  73. Keerthi, T.R., P.V. Suresh, A. Sabu and M. Chandrasekaran, 1999. Extracellular production of L- Glutaminase by an alkalophilic Beauveria bassiana BTMF S10 isolated from marine sediment. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 15: 751-752.
    CrossRef  |  

  74. Keerthi, T.R., A. Sabu, P.V. Suresh, S.R. Kumar and M. Chandrasekaran, 1998. L-Glutaminase production by an alkalophilic marine fungi Beauveria sp. Proceedings of 39th Annual Conference of the Association of Microbiologists of India, December 5-7, 1998, Mangalore, India -.

  75. Sabu, A. and P. Nambisan, 1997. Isolation of protoplasts from economically important marine algae using marine bacterial enzymes. Proceedings of in the National Symposium On Emerging Trends In Plant Tissue Culture and Molecular Biology, January 1997, Osmania University, Hyderabad -.

  76. Sabu, A., G.K. Warrier and S. Sankararaman, 1996. Effect of laser irradiation on growth and metabolism in plants. Proceedings of the 8th Kerala Science Congress, January 27-29, 1996, Cochin -.

  77. Sabu, A., T.E. Sheeja and P. Nambisan, 1995. Comparison of proline accumulation in callus and seedlings of two cultivars of Oryza sativa. L differing in salt tolerance. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 33: 139-141.

  78. Renukadevi, P.S., A. Sabu, and P. Nambisan, 1995. Proline accumulation and salt tolerance in rice. Proceedings of the All India Symposium On Recent Advances in Biotechnological Applications of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture, June 22-24, 1995, CFTRI Mysore -.